A Multiview Multimodal System for Monitoring Patient Sleep
Clinical observations indicate that during critical care at the hospitals, a patient's sleep positioning and motion have a significant effect on recovery rate. Unfortunately, there is no formal medical protocol to record, quantify, and analyze motion of patients. There are very few clinical studies that use manual analysis of sleep poses and motion recordings to support medical benefits of patient positioning and motion monitoring. Manual processes do not scale, are prone to human errors, and put strain on an already taxed healthcare workforce. This study introduces Multimodal, Multiview Motion Analysis and Summarization for healthcare (MASH). MASH is an autonomous system, which addresses these issues by monitoring healthcare environments and enabling the recording and analysis of patient sleep-pose patterns. MASH uses three RGB-D cameras to monitor patients in a medical Intensive Care Unit (ICU) room. The proposed algorithms estimate pose direction at different temporal resolutions and use keyframes to efficiently represent pose transition dynamics. MASH combines deep features computed from the data with a modified version of Hidden Markov Model (HMM) to flexibly model pose duration and summarize patient motion. The performance is evaluated in ideal (BC: Bright and Clear/occlusion-free) and natural (DO: Dark and Occluded) scenarios at two motion resolutions and in two environments: a mock-up and a medical ICU. The usage of deep features is evaluated and their performance compared with engineered features. Experimental results using deep features in DO scenes increases performance from 86.7% to 93.6%, while matching the classification performance of engineered features in BC scenes. The performance of MASH is compared with HMM and C3D. The overall over-time tracing and summarization error rate across all methods increased when transitioning from the mock-up to the the medical ICU data. The proposed keyframe estimation helps achieve a 78% transition classification accuracy.